Dr Ben Milligan

Ben is a Scientia Fellow based at the Environmental Law Cluster, Centre for Applied Economic Research, and Centre for Ecosystem Science. His interdisciplinary research, teaching and advisory work focus on:

  • Use of environmental information in public policymaking — in particular public sector accounting for environmental assets and ecosystem services using standardised statistical frameworks and approaches, and cross-sectoral development planning informed by natural capital and green growth approaches and perspectives.
  • Design of legal, institutional and policy frameworks for sustainable development — including a focus on integrated governance of transnational economic sectors (marine, mining, energy), and national implementation of multilateral commitments concerning the environment.

Ayuk E; Pedro A; Ekins P; Gatune J; Milligan B, 2020, Mineral Resource Government in the 21st Century: Gearing extractive industries towards sustainable development, United Nations Environment Programme, https://www.resourcepanel.org/reports/mineral-resource-governance-21st-century

Tsamenyi M, 2009, Fairer Fishing? The Impact on Developing Countries of the European Community Regulation on Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fisheries, Commonwealth Secretariat

Journal articles

Maes MJA; Jones KE; Toledano MB; Milligan B, 2020, 'Accounting for natural capital has cross-cutting relevance for UK public sector decision-making', Ecosystem Services, vol. 44, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2020.101127

Taylor SFW; Roberts MJ; Milligan B; Ncwadi R, 2019, 'Measurement and implications of marine food security in the Western Indian Ocean: an impending crisis?', Food Security, vol. 11, pp. 1395 - 1415, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12571-019-00971-6

Fuso Nerini F; Sovacool B; Hughes N; Cozzi L; Cosgrave E; Howells M; Tavoni M; Tomei J; Zerriffi H; Milligan B, 2019, 'Connecting climate action with other Sustainable Development Goals', Nature Sustainability, vol. 2, pp. 674 - 680, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41893-019-0334-y

Hermes JC; Masumoto Y; Beal LM; Roxy MK; Vialard J; Andres M; Annamalai H; Behera S; D'Adamo N; Doi T; Feng M; Han W; Hardman-Mountford N; Hendon H; Hood R; Kido S; Lee C; Lee T; Lengaigne M; Li J; Lumpkin R; Navaneeth KN; Milligan B; McPhaden MJ; Ravichandran M; Shinoda T; Singh A; Sloyan B; Strutton PG; Subramanian AC; Thurston S; Tozuka T; Ummenhofer CC; Unnikrishnan AS; Venkatesan R; Wang D; Wiggert J; Yu L; Yu W, 2019, 'A sustained ocean observing system in the indian ocean for climate related scientific knowledge and societal needs', Frontiers in Marine Science, vol. 6, http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00355

Milligan B; O'Keeffe M, 2019, 'Global Governance of Resources and Implications for Resource Efficiency in Europe', Ecological Economics, vol. 155, pp. 46 - 58, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.01.007

Maes MJA; Jones KE; Toledano MB; Milligan B, 2019, 'Mapping synergies and trade-offs between urban ecosystems and the sustainable development goals', Environmental Science and Policy, vol. 93, pp. 181 - 188, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2018.12.010

Fuso Nerini F, 2018, 'Shore up support for climate action using SDGs', Nature, vol. 557, pp. 31 - 31, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-05007-1

Fuso Nerini F; Tomei J; To LS; Bisaga I; Parikh P; Black M; Borrion A; Spataru C; Castán Broto V; Anandarajah G; Milligan B; Mulugetta Y, 2018, 'Mapping synergies and trade-offs between energy and the Sustainable Development Goals', Nature Energy, vol. 3, pp. 10 - 15, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41560-017-0036-5

Niner HJ; Milligan B; Jones PJS; Styan CA, 2017, 'A global snapshot of marine biodiversity offsetting policy', Marine Policy, vol. 81, pp. 368 - 374, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.04.005

Niner HJ; Milligan B; Jones PJS; Styan CA, 2017, 'Realising a vision of no net loss through marine biodiversity offsetting in Australia', Ocean and Coastal Management, vol. 148, pp. 22 - 30, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.07.006

Pedro A; Ayuk ET; Bodouroglou C; Milligan B; Ekins P; Oberle B, 2017, 'Towards a sustainable development licence to operate for the extractive sector', Mineral Economics, vol. 30, pp. 153 - 165, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13563-017-0108-9

Scott J; Smith T; Rehmatulla N; Milligan B, 2017, 'The promise and limits of private standards in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from shipping', Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 29, pp. 231 - 262, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jel/eqw033

Pedro A; Ayuk ET; Bodouroglou C; Milligan B; Ekins P; Oberle B, 2017, 'Erratum to: Towards a sustainable development licence to operate for the extractive sector (Mineral Economics, (2017), 30, 2, (153-165), 10.1007/s13563-017-0108-9)', Mineral Economics, vol. 30, pp. 167, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13563-017-0112-0

Terama E; Milligan B; Jiménez-Aybar R; Mace GM; Ekins P, 2016, 'Accounting for the environment as an economic asset: global progress and realizing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development', Sustainability Science, vol. 11, pp. 945 - 950, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11625-015-0350-4

Milligan B, 2014, 'Planning for offshore CO2 storage: Law and policy in the United Kingdom', Marine Policy, vol. 48, pp. 162 - 171, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2014.03.029

Tsamenyi M; Palma MA; Milligan B; Mfodwo K, 2010, 'The European council regulation on illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing: An international fisheries law perspective', International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, vol. 25, pp. 5 - 31, http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/092735210X12589554057604

Rose G; Milligan B, 2009, 'Law for the Management of Antarctic Marine Living Resources: From Normative Conflicts towards Integrated Governance?*', Yearbook of International Environmental Law, vol. 20, pp. 41 - 87, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/yiel/20.1.41

Tsamenyi M; Schofield C; Milligan B, 2009, 'Navigation through archipelagos: Current state practice', Center for Oceans Law and Policy, vol. 13, pp. 413 - 454, http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004173590.i-624.136

Pearson R; Prieto-Torres D; Milligan B; Marquet PA; Díaz S; Velásquez-Tibatá J; Haristoy CT; Suggitt AJ; Smith T; Soto CR; Prieto-Torres D; Owen N; Oostra V; Nava LF; Moreira-Arce D; Mills SC; Milligan B; Mendoza A; Manuschevich D; López-Maldonado Y; Lira-Noriega A; Lescano J; Díaz RL; Ingram DJ; Hackett TD; García-Morales R; Durán AP; Davis K; Corona-Núñez RO; Caron M; Velázquez MA; Martínez-Meyer E; Pearson RG, 'Research priorities for maintaining biodiversity’s contributions to people in Latin America', UCL Open Environment, http://dx.doi.org/10.14324/111.444/ucloe.000002

Book Chapters

Milligan B; Macrory R, 2018, 'The history and evolution of legal principles concerning the environment', in , Edward Elgar Publishing, http://dx.doi.org/10.4337/9781785365669.VI.2

Yassin Mohammed E; Steinbach D; Steele P; Milligan B, 2017, 'Fiscal Reforms for Sustainable Marine Fisheries Governance: Institutional Frameworks and Design Essentials', in Handbook on the Economics and Management of Sustainable Oceans, Edward Elgar Publishing

Milligan B, 2013, 'Marine protected areas in Antarctic waters: a review of policy options in the context of international law', in The Limits of Maritime Jurisdiction, Brill

Milligan B, 2013, 'The Australia-Papua New Guinea Torres Strait Treaty: A model for co-operative management of the South China Sea?', in , pp. 268 - 288, http://dx.doi.org/10.4337/9781781955949.00022


Bordt M; Milligan B; Praphotjanaporn T, 2020, Technical Guidance on Ocean Accounting for Sustainable Development, UNESCAP and Global Ocean Accounts Partnership, Version 0.8 Consultation Draft, https://unstats.un.org/unsd/statcom/51st-session/documents/BG-item-3h-TG_Ocean%20accounting_ESCAP-E.pdf

Milligan B; Mehra M, 2019, Environmental law-making for sustainable development: A guide for legislators, UN Environment, http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.29788.08329

Porras I; Mohammed E; Milligan B; James P; Harper S; Pochet G; Vargas R; Merayo E; Steele P, 2019, No hidden catch: Mainstreaming values of small-scale fisheries in national accounts, IIED, https://pubs.iied.org/16646IIED/

Ekins P; Hughes N; Milligan B, 2017, Rapid Assessment on the Prospects and Economic Implications of Resource Efficiency:, http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.21461.63201

Ekins P; Hughes N; Pye S; Winning M; Macrory R; Milligan B; Hazeldine S; Watson J, 2017, The role of CCS in meeting climate policy targets, Global CCS Institute, https://www.globalccsinstitute.com/resources/publications-reports-research/the-role-of-ccs-in-meeting-climate-policy-targets/

Martinez Romera B; Smith T; Milligan B; Andersson K; Grahn M, 2017, Nordic Action for a Transformation to Low-Carbon Shipping, 2017:544, http://dx.doi.org/10.6027/TN2017-544

Helsingen H; Milligan B; Dailey M; Bhagabati N, 2017, Greening China’s Belt and Road Initiative in Myanmar: Rapid Assessment of Opportunities and Risks for Myanmar’s Natural Capital, http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.19912.62727


Milligan B (ed.), 2019, Beneath the Surface of the First World Ocean Assessment: An Investigation into the Global Process’ Support for Sustainable Development., Frontiers Media, http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00612

Milligan B; Kariuki JG; Bodouroglou C; Ayuk E; Pedro A; Oberle B, 2017, Consultation paper: Towards a Sustainable Development Licence to Operate for the extractive sector, UN International Resource Panel, http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.30944.58887

Theses / Dissertations

Milligan B, 2013, Legal and policy options for the provisional management of maritime spaces subject to overlapping jurisdictional claims, http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.20656.15362